What is the keto diet? Rather than relying on counting calories, limiting portion sizes, resorting to extreme exercise or requiring lots of willpower (even in the face of drastically low energy levels), the ketogenic, low-carb diet takes an entirely different approach to weight loss and health improvements. It works because it changes the very “fuel source” that the body uses to stay energized: namely, from burning glucose (or sugar) to dietary fat, courtesy of keto recipes and the ketogenic diet food list items, including high-fat, low-carb diet foods.
But what does the science say? Results are mixed. In one Spanish study of 20 obese adults, participants were put on a low-calorie keto diet and lost an average of 40 pounds over four months. Another small experiment had a similar outcome. In a six-month Experimental & Clinical Cardiology study of 83 obese adults, those on the keto diet lost an average of 33 pounds, while lowering their bad (LDL) cholesterol levels and increasing their good (HDL) cholesterol.
To prevent side effects such as the keto flu, begin transitioning your meal plan gradually. Start by understanding how many carbohydrates you take in most days. Then begin slowly reducing your carbohydrate intake over a period of a few weeks while gradually increasing your intake of dietary fat to keep your calories the same. You should also make sure to seek guidance from a professional to make sure this plan works best for you and your health goals. “See a dietitian and adapt the diet to fit your long-term needs,” Spano recommends.
“These past 60 days have changed my life. I found out about it from a friend on Facebook and never looked back…. It has quickly become my lifestyle and it’s definitely one of those fad diets you find everywhere. Aside from weight loss, I’ve gained a confidence that I never knew I had inside. My relationship with my husband and family has improved exponentially. When my body reached ketosis, my life changed along with my pant size!!! Keto Fit Diet for the win!”
Reduced hunger. Many people experience a marked reduction in hunger on a keto diet. This may be caused by an increased ability of the body to be fueled by its fat stores. Many people feel great when they eat just once or twice a day, automatically ending up doing a form of intermittent fasting. This saves both time and money, while also speeding up weight loss.
Mistakes, refinements, pivots, corrections, whatever your want to call them… These changes are the vehicle that takes us from stage to stage of the Ketogenic Hierarchy of Needs. The good news is they are also the vehicle to break through plateaus and reach new performance levels. Changing habits is tough, no doubt about it, but have fun and go for it!
Here’s the Knowledge Stage analogy: Say we are hungry and want to go out to eat. It wouldn’t make much sense to sprint to the nearest restaurant, right? Wouldn’t we be better served to take the few minutes to learn about what’s available, and then make a plan? Yes, we would take the time to Yelp or ask a friend for some knowledge and use that information to decide where we want to go.
• Constipation: No one likes to feel backed up, and sadly if you're not careful about your diet choices when going keto, it could become a regular concern. One 10-year (albeit small) study looking at the effects of a keto diet on young children found that 65 percent experienced digestive woes. Thankfully, going keto is not a life sentence for problem bowels. Since you're cutting out whole grains and fruit (two of the most common sources of fiber), aim to up your fiber-rich veggies, and consider a supplement.
To be confident about being in ketosis, especially at the beginning when you're not quite sure how you should feel, it’s best to measure your ketone levels.  By monitoring your ketone levels, you can assure that you’re doing the diet correctly and make dietary adjustments based on what you measure. People also respond to diet and exercise differently, so the best way to cater the keto diet to your own biology is to measure.
Although studies have shown that the keto diet can reduce seizures for children with epilepsy, there is no evidence indicating that keto helps with other brain disorders or improves mental cognition, according to Harvard Health Publishing. Some studies show that keto may lower blood sugar for people with type 2 diabetes, but there is not enough long-term research to determine whether it’s safe and effective for diabetics.
Many people also experience cramping, notably in the feet and legs. Because of this, you’ll want to consume extra electrolytes any time you are on a ketogenic plan. People who suffer with these symptoms refer to them as the Keto-Flu, and while it isn’t like the real flu, the symptoms can knock you down until you get your electrolytes back in balance.
A keto diet has shown to improve triglyceride levels and cholesterol levels most associated with arterial buildup. More specifically low-carb, high-fat diets show a dramatic increase in HDL and decrease in LDL particle concentration compared to low-fat diets.3A study in the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet shows a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, body weight, and blood glucose. Read more on keto and cholesterol >
“These past 60 days have changed my life. I found out about it from a friend on Facebook and never looked back…. It has quickly become my lifestyle and it’s definitely one of those fad diets you find everywhere. Aside from weight loss, I’ve gained a confidence that I never knew I had inside. My relationship with my husband and family has improved exponentially. When my body reached ketosis, my life changed along with my pant size!!! Keto Fit Diet for the win!”
The end result is staying fueled off of circulating high ketones (which are also sometimes called ketone bodies) — which is what’s responsible for altering your metabolism in a way that some people like to say turns you into a “fat-burning machine.” Both in terms of how it feels physically and mentally, along with the impact it has on the body, being in ketosis is a very different than a “glycolytic state,” where blood glucose (sugar) serves as the body’s energy source.

After increasing water intake and replacing electrolytes, it should relieve most all symptoms of Keto Flu. For an average person that is starting a ketogenic diet, eating 20-30g of net carbs a day, the entire adaptation process will take about 4-5 days. My advice is to cut your carbs to fewer than 15g to ensure that you are well on your way into ketosis within one week. If you are experiencing any more keto flu symptoms, double check your electrolyte intake and adjust.
It also interferes with some of the social aspects of food, considering how limiting it is. No cake on your birthday. No pie on Thanksgiving. No chocolate truffles on Valentine's Day. Boo to that! If you consider yourself someone who loves to eat and takes great joy in the social experience of a good meal, then the restriction of this diet may be emotionally unhealthy.
The hallmark of a ketogenic diet is being in ketosis for extended periods of time, and is achieved by carbohydrate restriction. While there isn’t a strict prohibition of artificial sweeteners, grains, and manufactured foods, there is a strong preference in the community to lean towards natural, whole foods. Keto is for overall health, and weight loss is a welcome side effect for many people.
The best place to get started if you’re interested in the ketogenic diet is to first take a look at the fats you can incorporate, such as avocado, olive oil, or cacao butter. You could also take a look at more of an animal-based fat like grass-fed tallow or pasteurized lard or, if you are not too sensitive to butter, grass-fed butter is a really good option.
Lots of apps and website offer keto diet challenges—basically, a blueprint for the keto diet with a fixed starting and ending point (they typically last for a week to a month, though some may be longer). Speaking of apps, plenty of keto-centric ones are right at your fingertips (a.k.a., your smartphone), like the KetoDiet app, which can help you calculate your macros and track your keto diet effectively.
This short-term hack originated in clinical settings to help obese patients shed excess fat quickly.  It was described in Dr. Atkins’ New Diet Revolution for the same purpose. The diet consists of 1000 calories or less of almost entirely fat, with a little protein. This can be useful for people who have been on a ketogenic diet for at least three weeks, or who have had a weight plateau that has lasted at least three weeks. Since it’s so high in fat, you have to be keto-adapted for it to be effective, not just in ketosis.
Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; Alexandre Kiazand, MD; Sofiya Alhassan, PhD; Soowon Kim, PhD; Randall S. Stafford, MD, PhD; Raymond R. Balise, PhD; Helena C. Kraemer, PhD; Abby C. King, PhD, “Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women,” JAMA. 2007;297(9):969-977. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/art icle.aspx?articleid=205916.
3) Now that you have the information you need about your body’s present condition and info on ketosis, head over to this Keto Calculator Tutorial, and figure out how many grams of Carbohydrates, Fat, and Protein you need each day to lose weight. These numbers are critical so don’t forget to write them down. I keep a piece of paper pinned to my wall so I can easily see them when planning meals.

After about two to seven days of following this eating routine, you go into something called ketosis, or the state your body enters when it doesn't have enough carbs for your cells to use for energy. Then it starts making ketones, or organic compounds that your bod then uses in place of those missing carbs—and oh, it also burns fat for more energy, says Beth Warren, R.D., founder of Beth Warren Nutrition and author of Living A Real Life With Real Food.
Is it recommended to calculate our macros using the method suggested in the article to calculate yourself or by using the linked calculator? I get two different sets of numbers and am not sure which might be the better version. The main difference is amount of caloris and amount of protein to consume. The calculator gives me about 300 less calories, about the same amount of fat and carbs, but about 40 less protein than when I calculate myself.

• Multiple Sclerosis: In a small 2016 study, patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were put on a ketogenic diet. After six months, they reported improved quality of life, as well as physical and mental health improvements. Before doctors or researchers can make a connection between keto and MS, they need bigger sample sizes and more thorough research. Still, the preliminary findings are exciting.
Over 8–10 mmol/l: It’s normally impossible to get to this level just by eating a keto diet. It means that something is wrong. The most common cause by far is type 1 diabetes, with severe lack of insulin. Symptoms include feeling very sick with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and confusion. The possible end result, ketoacidosis, may be fatal and requires immediate medical care. Learn more
A: There's no specific answer for this question, as it is dependent on many factors. However, you may be able to spot improvements right away. In a study that tested the ketogenic diet on obese people, researchers noted that after 24 weeks, the test subjects lost around 14 kilograms (30.8 pounds) of excess weight, going from an average 101.03 kilograms to 86.67 kilograms (222.7 pounds to 191 pounds).67
A “moderate keto diet” is an option that can still encourage substantial weight loss and other improvements in symptoms. A moderate keto diet includes more foods with carbs and, therefore, more fiber too. Carbs are usually increased to about  30–50 net grams per day, which means foods like more high-fiber veggies, some fruit or some starchy veggies can also be included.

3) Now that you have the information you need about your body’s present condition and info on ketosis, head over to this Keto Calculator Tutorial, and figure out how many grams of Carbohydrates, Fat, and Protein you need each day to lose weight. These numbers are critical so don’t forget to write them down. I keep a piece of paper pinned to my wall so I can easily see them when planning meals.
In the first week, many people report headaches, mental fogginess, dizziness, and aggravation. Most of the time, this is the result of your electrolytes being flushed out, as ketosis has a diuretic effect. Make sure you drink plenty of water and keep your sodium intake up.6One of the fathers of keto, Dr. Phinney, shows that electrolyte levels (especially sodium) can become unbalanced with low carb intake.
Yancy WS Jr, Westman EC, McDuffie JR, Grambow SC, Jeffreys AS, Bolton J, Chalecki A, Oddone EZ, “A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a lowfat diet for weight loss,” Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jan 25;170(2):136-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20101008?itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum&ordinalpos=2.
Net carbs are what we track when following a ketogenic diet. This calculation is pretty straightforward. Net Carbs = Total Carbs – Fiber. For example, one cup of broccoli has 6g of total carbs and 2.4g of fiber. That would mean one cup of broccoli has 3.6g of net carbs. We count Net Carbs  because dietary fiber does not have a significant metabolic effect. 
Going into nutritional ketosis by following a ketogenic diet is one of the most radical but highly beneficial lifestyle changes you can make to improve your health. As with most dietary changes, always remember to listen to your body. If you feel any side effects other than the ones listed above, then necessary adjustments to your food intake may be needed.

Clinical improvement was observed in Alzheimer’s patients fed a ketogenic diet, and this was marked by improved mitochondrial function. (14a) In fact, a European Journal of Clinical Nutrition study pointed to emerging data that suggested the therapeutic use of ketogenic diets for multiple neurological disorders beyond epilepsy and Alzheimer’s, including headaches, neurotrauma, Parkinson’s disease, sleep disorders, brain cancer, autism and multiple sclerosis. (14b)


The keto diet is known for helping people lose a few pounds very quickly, says Becky Kerkenbush, RD, a clinical dietitian at Watertown Regional Medical Center. Carbs hold on to more water than protein or fat, so when you stop eating them, your body releases all that extra H2O by making you pee more. As a result, the scale might read a few pounds lower, and you may look a bit leaner.
The electrolyte minerals are sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, and you need all four. Sports drinks are full of sugars, and only have low amounts of these minerals, so it’s best to avoid them. Instead, focus on vegetables that contain high amounts of these minerals, and make sure to salt your food to taste. You can also make an electrolyte drink that contains all of these minerals. Lite Salt or No Salt is available in the grocery store as a salt substitute, and contains potassium. Magnesium and calcium powders are available in health food stores and online.

Basically, the role of exogenous ketones is to boost the amount of ketones in your body. These products do work wonders if, after a long time on a keto diet, you don’t feel energized or generally don’t feel like you are at your best. Ultimately deciding to take exogenous ketones or not comes down to how you feel on your keto diet and trying to find a product with the highest possible quality.
Those issues can be part of what's known as the “keto flu,” Warren says. Other side effects of the keto diet, all of which are tied to carb withdrawal, can include lightheadedness, nausea, mental fog, cramps, and headaches, in addition to tiredness. Luckily, the keto flu doesn't usually last more than a week—which is coincidentally about when people start to see the number on the scale go down, says Warren.
The classic ketogenic diet is a very low-carb diet plan that was originally designed in the 1920s for patients with epilepsy by researchers working at Johns Hopkins Medical Center. (1) Researchers found that fasting — avoiding consumption of all foods for a brief period of time (such as with intermittent fasting), including those that provide carbohydrates — helped reduce the amount of seizures patients suffered, in addition to having other positive effects on body fat, blood sugar, cholesterol and hunger levels. (2)

There are variations of the ketogenic diet that are implemented for a variety of reasons.  One of the top reasons these variations are used are for athletes who are not getting the necessary energy required for their intense workouts.  There are also those who enjoy the benefits of ketosis, but they just do not feel the same without a carb refeed day every now and then.


For any individual with diabetes, discussing dietary changes — especially those as dramatic as the ones the ketogenic diet requires — with your healthcare team is essential. Because carbohydrates are broken down into glucose in the blood, cutting carbohydrates from your diet could cause levels to crash rapidly depending on your current medication regimen. Such a change may require significant adjustments to medication and insulin to prevent dangerous side effects such as low blood sugar, called hypoglycemia. (8)


At the core of the classic ketogenic diet is severely restricting intake of all or most foods with sugar and starch (carbohydrates). These foods are broken down into sugar (insulin and glucose) in our blood once we eat them, and if these levels become too high, extra calories are much more easily stored as body fat and results in unwanted weight gain. However, when glucose levels are cut off due to low-carb dieting, the body starts to burn fat instead and produces ketones that can be measured in the blood (using urine strips, for example).
•Sodium: Believe it or not, depending on your diet, you may be low on salt. When carb intake is low and insulin isn't being excreted, the kidneys absorb less sodium and potassium and excrete more as waste, leaving you feeling dizzy, fatigued and grumpy. Rather than reaching for more processed food, try seasoning your food a little more liberally with sea salt.

Oh man, this is a great read. Entertaining and full or resources and digestible content even though it is a long article. But I appreciate the research you went through it. I remember 5 years ago researching about Keto diet took forever because of how spread out the sources were. This is great work as a guide. Thanks for the article. Before reading this article I thought the requirements were too strict, but now that I read it, I am already doing a third of that list. I am trying IF right now, but I think this will help me with my satiety problem with meals, plus help me with weight loss. Thanks for the motivation and information Steve. I am starting my plan of attack and try a Keto diet.

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