The ketogenic, or "keto," diet ” which first became popular in the 1920s as a treatment for epilepsy and diabetes” limits carbohydrates to no more than 50 grams a day, which is the rough equivalent of a plain bagel or a cup of white rice. By comparison, dietary guidelines from the US Department of Agriculture recommend from 225 to 325 grams of carbs a day.
Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; Alexandre Kiazand, MD; Sofiya Alhassan, PhD; Soowon Kim, PhD; Randall S. Stafford, MD, PhD; Raymond R. Balise, PhD; Helena C. Kraemer, PhD; Abby C. King, PhD, œComparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women, JAMA. 2007;297(9):969-977. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/art icle.aspx?articleid=205916.
If you do try the diet outside of medical supervision, Kizer says it's important to test your urine with urinalysis ketone test strips to ensure your ketone levels don't become dangerously high. Ketone urine test strips are also used by people with diabetes to determine if they're at risk for ketoacidosis (DKA), a life-threatening complication that occurs when an individual doesn't have enough insulin in their body. (Healthy ketosis is considered 0.5 to 3.0 mM blood ketones.)
During week 1 (and sometimes week 2) your body is transitioning to this whole new metabolic state, and there may be some initial side effects. These are collectively known as the "keto flu". The good thing is that if you don't take them for granted and think you're "superman" and that your body will be different, you can easily prevent these symptoms.
¢Sodium: Believe it or not, depending on your diet, you may be low on salt. When carb intake is low and insulin isn't being excreted, the kidneys absorb less sodium and potassium and excrete more as waste, leaving you feeling dizzy, fatigued and grumpy. Rather than reaching for more processed food, try seasoning your food a little more liberally with sea salt.
I've always heard that the brain functions well on ketones. Gluconeogenisis typically reduces ketosis, though as well? This is the first time I've heard anyone say the brain can't use anything but glucose. I know there's *preferred* sources of fuel over others, but I was also fairly certain other sources were fine.. or humans might be in a bit of trouble.
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